Geographical Regions of Turkey: Marmara Region
Out of Turkey's seven geographical regions, Marmara Region is the smallest region yet has the highest population and has the highest contribution to Turkey's total gross domestic product (GDP) by 47%. Located in the northwestern part of Turkey, the Marmara region borders Bulgaria to the northwest, Greece to the west, and other regions of Turkey to the east and south. A sea called the Sea of Marmara is located in the center of the region, which gives the region its name. Even though the Marmara region makes up only 8,5% of Turkey's territory, it is considered the financial heart of Turkey. This region is special for Turkey in many fields, as numerous cities are highly advanced in industry, tourism, and agriculture compared to the rest of Turkey. Acting as a bridge between Europe and Asia, Marmara Region could even be classified as Turkey's most important region. As Turkey's most densely populated region, Marmara offers countless goods with its fertile lands. Turkey's most famous city Istanbul is also located in this region. Marmara region is a highly-populated rich region that has small land. Due to its size, the real estate sector was always of utmost importance and still is.
With its proximity to important provinces in Turkey, such as Ankara and İzmir, and borders with other countries, Marmara Region establishes easy access for its residents. Home to Europe's going-to-be biggest airport, the Marmara region is filled with international airports that conduct an essential way of transportation. As almost all provinces in the city have a coast to either the Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, or the Black Sea, transportation methods via sea are highly advanced and numerous harbors could easily be found in this region.
Climate and Vegetation
Since different seas encircle the Marmara region, it has a combination of climates such as Mediterranean climate on the southern part of the region, an oceanic climate on the Black Sea coast, and a humid continental climate in the interior. Usually, summers in the Marmara region are warm and humid; winters are cold and wet. The average temperature of this region is around 26°C in summer and 7°C in winter.
Due to differences in climate, its vegetation differs from location to location as well. Where the land meets the sea, scrub vegetation could be seen. At places with high altitude and in the Black Sea coasts, temperate broadleaf and mixed forest vegetation are seen.
Marmara region creates countless jobs with its highly increasing success in the industry every year. As the land is suitable and transportation of materials required for many sectors is easy, Marmara Region shines with its industry. Products manufactured in the Marmara region reach all over the world. The primary industries in this region are textile, automotive products, steel production, ceramics, processed food, paper, and white goods.
Marmara region has the lowest median altitude comparing to other regions of Turkey. With its easy access to rich bodies of water, the Marmara region has one of the most fertile soils in Turkey. With its climate and rich soil, agriculture in this region is one of Turkey's most advanced. Usage of high-technologic agricultural systems and support from the Turkish government led to developments in farming. 30% of the Marmara region is used for agriculture and wheat makes up half of these lands, along with corn, sugar beet, and sunflower. This region is responsible for 73% of sunflower production in Turkey. With such prosperous farms and the increasing number of vineyards, agriculture in Marmara Region is highly-valuable.
Marmara Region is filled with tourists throughout the year. Receiving high numbers of tourists that even could compete with regions such as the Mediterranean and Aegean, tourism holds its significant importance as of 2020. Being the leading province in tourism as well, Istanbul attracts tourists all around the world with its historical value and beauty. Other provinces such as Tekirdağ, Bursa, and Balıkesir are cities that attract tourists around the globe.